My Study       
Benno Zuiddam


The answer key to period 1: Church in a pagan world  


Give it a thought 

1.       Non-Christian government and moral decline, multicultural and multi-religious. A minority whose convictions are increasingly perceived at odds with society at large. 

2.       The forum in Rome gave access to separate chapels for different gods. Medieval cathedrals followed the pattern of the chapels for different dead saints around the main centre of worship. As the Romans approached different gods for different occasions, the cult of the saints called in their help for areas in which the saints allegedly specialized. 

3.       In Christ Christians recognized a higher authority than Caesar, didn’t recognize the gods, they were at odds with society in general with their religious and moral values, while there were misunderstandings about their practices because of lack of familiarity.  

4.       In the Scriptures Christians recognized the voice of God. These became the standard for faith and practice. 

5.       If one adheres to Scripture as the standard for Christian beliefs, yes. Many people who call themselves Christians would identify with it even today. 

6.       Pose a hindrance as it exclusively believed in one God only and denied the moral validity of the traditional Roman gods and the multi-religious society. 

7.        Yes, yes, very, no. 

8.       That it is very important to celebrate the Lord’s Supper / Holy Communion on a regular basis to strengthen one’s faith. 

9.       Yes. Most people would at times, especially when it contradicts our lifestyle or preferences. 

10.   This suggests that what presents itself still as Christian Theology with these views has no historical basis for this claim. What used to be pagan views outside the Church have become prevalent inside the Church. This suggests an identity crisis and a departure from traditional Christianity. 

11.   The early Church eventually settled this debate by deciding that the validity of baptism doesn’t depend on the worthiness of the administrator. For instance, Eli was a hopeless priest but what he did in his priestly office was valid nonetheless. If there was doubt as to someone had been validly baptized (for instance, not in the right name or no witnesses left) this person could be conditionally baptized (If you have not been validly baptized before, I now baptize you in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit). 

Essay: should at least reflect essentials of answers above. 

Answers to multiple choice: 1a,2b,3c,4d5a,6a,7c,8a,9c,10c,11abcd,12b,13d,14a. 

Bible study 2 Timothy 3 

a)      No, they would have identified, yes. 

b)      Yes, Christian talk only is useless, yes if words and deeds don’t add up Christians should be among the first to be alerted. 

c)       Should be essential as Christians are supposed to subject to God’s standards. 

d)      He set an example for doctrine and manner of life in difficult circumstances. 

e)      From God (vs16). It can help you to discern God’s voice and will. 

f)       Very, as God had to be served in his way. Yes, as Christians are called to serve God with all their heart, mind and strength. If you love someone you will do your best to get to know him and respect his ideas and his likes and dislikes. For instance, if you start acting on the premise that your friend likes soccer, while in fact he hates it, the friendship may not last… 



Prof. Dr. Benno A. Zuiddam