My Study       
Benno Zuiddam


Score key for Period 3: Christian Commonwealth (800-1303)  

1.      They were used to teach pupils how to read and write and regarded as important texts to be memorized. The Lord’s Prayer and the Ten Commandments teach people how to relate to God and one another. That education was to have a Christian identity. It was part of the religious calling to serve God with all of your mind. That if we want a Christian society and a stable moral foundation for it, moral values and religion is not optional, but needs to be taught. 

2.      He felt that the Bible is against it, as it speaks out against making “graven images” in a context of worship (cf. Ten Commandment, Exodus 20), and particularly forbids images of God. As Jesus is the Son of God, and he argued for worship “in Spirit and in truth,” from the start, this still seems a relevant point.  

3.      Give your own, reasoned, views. In general it would be important that ministers should be expected to do and to preach as the Bible says, even if this is not well received by those who contribute to his salary. 

4.      The pope would appoint people in spiritual offices (often with great powers and properties attached), without interference from the government, while the emperor would be left alone in bestowing worldly power. What does the Bible say? Is everyone called to serve God? What do you think? 

5.      No, the Church has attached a special value to the Lord’s Supper as a spiritual way of ‘connecting’ to Jesus sacrifice, his body that was broken and his blood that was shed. The doctrine of transubstantiation is a literalist interpretation, requiring the literal body and blood of Jesus to be present and eaten from. This interpretation cannot be found in the Bible. At the institution of this sacrament, on the night that Jesus was betrayed, Jesus presided. His body was not eaten, his blood not consumed, but the bread and wine that signified his body and blood were. For the early Church Jesus’ body ascended to heaven after the resurrection. 

6.      Probably not, the Church came up with several rules that enforced loyalty to the club, but which could not be found in Scripture. The accountability of the Church to the Bible was weakened. 

7.      See page 91. Note that number 1 and 6 were successful and number 4 (although provoked by Byzantine dealings with the Turks) a not so holy enterprise. What does the Bible say? Should a government protect its people? 

8.      Give your views. 

9.      The Western Church came to see itself as the sole representative of God on earth. Before Unam Sanctam Catholicism was defined in terms of Apostolic Faith; afterwards in terms of loyalty to the Roman church-organization. 

The choice is yours: 1b,2c,3a,4c,5b,6b,7a,8a,9abcd,10a,11b,12abcd, 14a,15abcd. 

Bible study: Romans 13 

a)      Not in the Bible. E.g. Deuteronomy 7, 2 Chronicles 34, Acts 17:16-31. 

b)      It means that even governments who do wrong will be held to account, not at the next election, but at the last Judgement, cf. Revelation 18 and 19. 

c)      Yes, they would help to maintain or create a stable and moral society. Answer for yourself. 


Prof. Dr. Benno A. Zuiddam